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Centuries of dominance of Islam in the political systems of countries where Muslims make up a majority, as well as political, economic and cultural exchanges that were fostered by Islam, lead us to suggest the existence of Islamic legacy in public administration (PA). This article examines Ideology of National Independence in Uzbekistan and identifies several mental models rooted in the Islamic legacy. The deficit of legitimacy experienced by the Uzbek government after the collapse of the Soviet Union has created conditions for explicit use of the Islamic legacy to address the legitimacy problem. The internalization on the part of Uzbek civil servants of the mental models rooted in the Islamic legacy has also affected its sense of purpose and coherence as well as Uzbekistan’s response to the outside pressure for reforms.